Investigations and diagnosis of metabolic syndrome
Patients with a metabolic syndrome often have little or no discomfort and may go unnoticed for a long time. Since in many patients, obesity leads to hypertension and a disturbed sugar or fat metabolism, especially heavily overweight people should be regularly examined by their doctor.Here you can find some of the Metabolic syndrome treatments
This person will inform himself in a personal conversation about the health situation of the patient and ask him about possible complaints as well as his personal medical history and that of his relatives. In addition, he should know about the lifestyle and nutritional habits of the patient.
Subsequently, the physician will physically examine the patient, measuring the waist circumference, blood pressure, and various blood levels to find out if the typical symptoms of a metabolic syndrome are present. This is the case when certain limits are exceeded.
Metabolic syndrome treatments
- An important goal of treatment of metabolic syndrome is to prevent sequelae. It is important to start treatment as early as possible in order to mitigate or even avoid all factors that favor the development of complications. These include the lowering of blood lipids, especially the LDL and an increase in the HDL value. In addition, the doctor will treat high blood pressure and obesity, as they increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
- The treatment of the metabolic syndrome takes place in several steps. First, the doctor recommends that patients improve their symptoms by changing their dietary habits and diet. If these measures are unsuccessful, the doctor may also use medication for treatment.
Metabolic syndrome treatments: Change of lifestyle
- Patients with a metabolic syndrome should take care to be conscious and balanced. It is important that they do not absorb more energy than they consume (balanced energy balance) and that they are low in fat and low in cholesterol.
- To permanently lose weight, overweight people should look for a low-fat (less than 30% of the energy consumed), but carbohydrate (about 50% of the energy intake) and protein-rich (15-20%) diet. The proportion of saturated fatty acids should not exceed 7-10% of the total energy. The upper limit for cholesterol is 300 milligrams per day.
- In addition, an energy level of at least 1200 kilocalories per day is the lower limit, as it may lead to a lack of nutrients.
- A change in diet is a longer-term process that usually only takes effect after a few months. The goal is less a strong, short-term weight loss, but a permanent adaptation of the metabolism. Although so-called “crash diets” can have a major effect in the short term, they are not long-lasting (JoJo effect) and are therefore not recommended by nutritional experts – a conventional diet will take at least three months to reach 10 kilograms For 15-40 kilograms they need 6-24 months for consistent therapy.
- To support the patient in changing his lifestyle, a behavioral therapy may be useful. It should motivate him and help him to keep the behavioral changes in everyday life. In addition, rigid control measures should be replaced by flexible controls.
- Regular exercise, preferably 30 minutes daily, is a key component of treating a metabolic syndrome. Exercise increases energy consumption and thus helps to reduce blood lipids and reduce obesity.
Abstaining from smoking and alcohol
- Avoiding nicotine has a positive effect on cholesterol and helps reduce the risk of heart attack. Alcohol abstinence has a positive effect on a disorder of lipid metabolism and helps to lower elevated blood pressure.
- In case of extreme overweight with a body mass index of 35-40 or more, the stomach circumference can be limited by surgery. In a minimally invasive procedure (laparoscopy), an adjustable silicone band is placed around the upper part of the stomach.
- Another, now more commonly used procedure is to surgically apply a bypass to parts of the small intestine where the actual digestion takes place, in combination with various forms of gastric reduction.
- If lifestyle change alone is not enough, the doctor can treat the symptoms of the metabolic syndrome with medication. Experts recommend a drug therapy especially for patients with a body mass index of over 27-30 who have lost less than 5 kilograms within 3-6 months despite non-drug treatment. Depending on the symptom, different drugs are available to the doctor:
Treatment of obesity
- incretin analogs of the natural intestinal hormones, Inkretinen (eg GLP-1) derived drugs, in addition to a demand-matched blood sugar to a significant weight loss of 3-5kg – often more – lead.
- Diuretics (water, diuretics)
Belonging to these kidney-acting drugs thiazides and loop diuretics (specifically in renal function), as well as potassium-sparing diuretics. They increase the excretion of saline and water through the kidneys and increase their effectiveness in combination with other antihypertensive drugs.
Blockers Beta- blockers are drugs that block the so-called ß-receptors in the body. This inhibits the action of certain stress hormones (norepinephrine, epinephrine).
Treatment of lipid metabolism disorders
- These drugs inhibit the formation of cholesterol in the liver. The liver also increases its cholesterol and breaks it down. They lower total blood cholesterol by 30-40%. LDL cholesterol drops by 35-45%, neutral fats ( triglycerides ) decrease slightly and HDL cholesterol rises slightly.
- inhibitors These substances inhibit the absorption, ie the transport of cholesterol from the intestine. You can lower the LDL level by an average of 20%.
- Fibrates promote the breakdown of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, which is why they are used primarily at elevated triglyceride levels.
Treatment of sugar metabolism disorders (type 2 diabetes)
- Biguanides delay the absorption of sugar from the intestine and reduce the formation of sugar by the liver. In addition, metformin lowers blood lipids (triglycerides) and supports weight loss. Therefore, metformin is particularly suitable for the treatment of overweight patients with metabolic syndrome.
- Glitazones increase the sensitivity of tissue cells to insulin, thereby reducing insulin resistance. They also have a positive effect on the fat metabolism.
- sulfonylureas stimulate the pancreas to produce insulin.As they often lead to weight gain and increase existing insulin resistance, they are less suitable for overweight patients.
- Incretins are intestinal hormones (eg GLP-1), which regulate the release of insulin during food intake as needed. At the same time, the levels of the blood sugar-enhancing hormone glucagon in the blood are reduced. Incretin analogs are similar to natural incretins and mimic their effects. In addition, weight and blood pressure levels drop.
Metabolic syndrome Treatments: prevention and precautions
- A metabolic syndrome increases the risk of those affected by cardiovascular diseases ( heart attack, heart failure, and stroke ) and types 2 diabetes. Experts estimate that those affected have a fourfold increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The probability of dying prematurely is two to three times higher.
- Although type 2 diabetes is not curable, often already causes a weight loss that the blood sugar level drops. As the fatty tissue decreases, the body becomes more sensitive to the body’s own insulin. Also, physical exercise increases the sensitivity of the body to insulin and thus causes a decrease in blood sugar.
- If a patient develops a disease from the metabolic complex of symptoms, special caution, and increased treatment needs are required. Together with his doctor, the person concerned should initiate countermeasures as early as possible in order to avoid aggravating the symptoms or to add further signs of illness. Patients with high blood pressure, obesity, or elevated levels of blood lipids or blood glucose should permanently change their lifestyle and pay attention to their diet. Only then can they reduce their personal risk of atherosclerosis, heart attack or stroke.
- Therefore, it is very important that patients eat consciously and balanced, move regularly and abstain from nicotine and too much alcohol.
The following measures have proven effective in high-risk patients:
- Weight loss by 5-7% within 3 months
- Daily 2.5 hours of physical activity per week
- At least 15 grams of fibrous fiber per 1000 kilocalories
- At most 30% fat in the diet
- Not more than 7-10% saturated fat in the daily diet
Patients who meet these requirements may have secondary diseases, such as As the onset of diabetes, almost always prevent. It is important to regularly check these measures by a doctor. By measuring your blood pressure, waist circumference and body mass index, he can easily and conveniently judge the success of the measures.